Paper bank notes were collected in and around The George Washington University Hospital. The notes were washed in detergent to remove bacteria, which were then grown on mannitol salts agar with or without antibiotic supplementation. Yellow colonies were observed, which was indicative of Staphylococcus Aureus strains. Various strains were treated to purify plasmid DNA. The strains were also cured with Acridine Orange to remove plasmid DNA, and the strains with and without Acridine Orange were grown on vancomycin-supplemented media to test if the plasmid DNA in the strain was related with conferring vancomycin resistance.
The role of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in the development of complications in individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been explored by previous studies. However, the relationship between these reactive AGEs and diabetic complications are still somewhat unknown. Glycation (nonenzymatic glycosylation) processes, also known as the Maillard reactions, are a series of reactions between carbohydrates and free amino groups of proteins. The preliminary intermediates, (Amadori products; 1-amino, 1-deoxy, 2-ketoses), ultimately result in the formation of AGEs. AGEs in humans have been predominantly chemically characterized by the detection of pentosidine and N-carboxy-methyl lysine (CML). Both pentosidine and CML have been found to accumulate in skin and lens collagen matrix at accelerated rates in diabetic patients.