In this paper, the genetic algorithm is used to investigate the evolution of cooperation based upon automata that play in an iterated prisoner’s dilemma tournament. Cooperation evolved from a state of randomness. Furthermore, it is shown that “niceness”, as defined by Robert Axelrod, is unstable in this model, and, contrary to previous speculation, selective pressure is needed to stabilize niceness. A multiprocessing approach also shows that cooperation can spread through migration among multiple evolving populations.
In a letter to Congress, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced plans to spend $18 million to open a nationally funded stem cell bank. Currently, stem cells are grown in separate locations, often in a variety of conditions and environments that may hinder growth. The NIH hopes that the central center will reduce shipping costs of the stem cells.
We're geeks, nerds, lab rats, people who can't get dates. We wear white lab coats and seek solitude in our laboratories, never happier than when we are working. We're geniuses who can't be bothered with idle conversation with mere mortals so unlike ourselves. Nothing kills a conversation faster than the admission that you are a scientist.