Keeping Current Mini-Review Earthquake Forecasting

Author: Gerald T. McNeil III

In 2016, Ecuador and Italy both experienced deadly earthquakes, with death tolls of over 800 people even with a commonly used earthquake prediction system in place. The seismometer system, which is the current system used in earthquake prediction, provided no help or warning of the devastating earthquakes that occurred. This method only looks at patterns of previous earthquakes to give the probability of an aftershock once the first earthquake occurs. Newer methods currently being studied look at physical changes in the earth and atmosphere caused by tectonic plate shifting which begin before the main event of an earthquake. In this paper, we will review the use of ionosphere electron measurements, changes in water chemistry, pre-seismic tremors, magnetic field changes, and changes in air chemistry, in the field of earthquake prediction and discuss why combining multiple methods can create a more accurate way of making pre-disaster predictions.