Current Tactics Employed in Cancer Vaccines and Their Progress

Authors:  Alexander C. Sjuts, Aaron A. Brown

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the US, and the American Cancer Society predicts that there will be approximately 1,660,290 new cancer cases and 580,350 cancer-related deaths in 2013. A wide variety of cancer vaccines including protein and peptide- based, DNA and RNA-based, tumor cell and tumor cell lysate-based, and vector-based vaccines are currently being tested in clinical trials to try and boost the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in humans.

The Effect of Food Type on the Development Rate of the Danaid Eggfly

Authors:  Sharmaine L. Miller, Benjamin Mensah, Daniel Wubah

Butterflies are important components of community trophic structure because they serve as food for mammals, lizards, birds, other insects, and spiders (Schreiner, 1997). Furthermore, certain species of butterfly are alsovalued pollinators and herbivores; therefore, butterflies are important in maintaining ecosystem biodiversity (Hammer, 2014). Individual butterflies are vulnerable as larvae because they are small and slow. They are also immobile as pupae or cocoons. A shortened larval and/or pupal period should decrease the chances of being ingested or attacked by predators and increase the probability of surviving to adulthood. Therefore, efforts to identify food types effective at increasing the development rates of threatened butterfly species may be useful. The purpose of this study was to determine whether different food types affect the rate of development of Hypolimnas misippus, also known as the Danaid eggfly.