In February, The FDA approved the Argus II, the first retinal implant to enable blind patients with retinitis pigmentosa to see. The implant was produced by Second Sight, a medical products company, which has been implanted in about seventy blind patients so far. Second Sight was founded by Alfred Mann, a biomedical entrepreneur who also founded Advanced Bionics, a company specializing in cochlear implants for deaf patients.
This paper describes the mathematics of the Enigma electromechanical rotor ciphers used by Germany during WWII. The research is focused on the contributions made by the Polish Cipher Bureau and presents their incentives for breaking Enigma encryptions. German operational procedure is included to show how redundancy measures allowed frequency analysis to be enabled, easing Polish efforts. Also included are the calculations for the strength of encryption granted by each component.