Viruses infecting the liver cause thousands of cases of liver failure, cancer and death each year. Now, two such viruses, hepatitis A and hepatitis C, have been shown to attack the same part of the immune system, according to a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences earlier this month. Stanley Lemon, a University of Texas microbiology professor, and his colleagues believe that destroying a protein called mitochondrial antiviral signalling (MAVS) may be a necessary step for viruses seeking to infect the liver.
Sitting in the reclining chair during my last visit to dentist, I stared very intently at the drill that the dentist was about to use in my mouth. I started tensing up as I anticipated the high pitched shrill sound that would accompany the grinding of the dental drill against my teeth. I remembered that those drills could be made out steel with a tungsten carbide coat, or even worse, a diamonds coating.
String theory has seen better days. Once hailed as the most promising theory with perhaps a Theory of Everything just around the corner, it has recently been publicly criticized by several physicists as a potential dead end. Is string theory really hanging on by a thread? Or is it still tightly woven into mainstream physics?
Vibrio vulnificus, a common human pathogen, is autochthonous to warm estuarine and coastal waters where it can undergo different kinds of environmental stresses. Very little is known about how environmental isolates from Texas waters cope with extreme conditions; our objective was to study the response of these isolates under oxidative stress.
The lowly fixed-point recursion xn+1 = f(xn), which is at the bottom of the iterative methods evolutionary ladder, should come before the Newton-Raphson method. Yet in calculus texts the latter takes precedence, due probably to the appeal of its plausible geometrical interpretation visualized so convincingly as sliding down tangent lines. But relying on graphs and pictures can lead to simplistic thinking.
The debate regarding the effectiveness of current prostate cancer screening strategies and the necessity of population based testing is becoming a major issue within the medical community. While Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing is the most widespread form of prostate cancer screening, its specificity of 63.1% and low sensitivity of 34.9% calls for a statistically improved and more effective method to more accurately and consistently detect the ninth most common form of cancer. New technology has enabled medical researchers to develop more reliable, less invasive screening methods.
This research asks what the relationship is between meanders of the Feher and Sebes-Körös Rivers and Early Copper Age Settlements located in Southeast Hungary. Done in conjunction with a National Science Foundation funded archaeological excavation of two Early Copper Age settlements, the purpose is to determine why almost all Early Copper Age settlements in the Great Hungarian Plain, where these excavations are located, are situated along river meanders.
The vertebrate limb is patterned by a number of interrelated molecular pathways which ultimately determine the musculoskeletal and soft tissue organisation of the completed limb. Once the limb field has been established, the proximodistal axis is primarily determined by fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs), dorsoventral by a Wnt system and anteroposterior by Sonic hedgehog (Shh). Although still relatively infrequent, congenital limb deformities may have profound physical and psychosocial effects on children and their families.
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), a collective electron density oscillation found exclusively in metallic nanostructures, is a phenomenon that is of practical significance. The strong UV-vis absorption band exhibited by metallic nanoparticles is a phenomenon not found in their bulk equivalent. Therefore, the LSPR response of metallic nanoparticles to changes in their surrounding dielectric environment may be exploited to use nanoparticle arrays as sensing platforms for biological or chemical sensors.
In a world of fad diets and rising incidence of eating disorders, Inger Stallmann-Jorgensen, a research dietician, offers some surprising news. Published in the April issue of The International Journal of Obesity, Stallmann-Jorgensen et al.'s findings show that teenagers who exercised the most and ate the most were the leanest.