Over the past decade, researchers have established a definite relationship between Alzheimer's disease and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Not only do cholinergic activity and neuronal nAChR levels decrease as the disease progresses, but recent studies have also demonstrated that the beta-amyloid protein produced in Alzheimer's disease can directly and indirectly affect nAChR-mediated synaptic transmission. Researchers are currently trying to elucidate the mechanisms of these effects while simultaneously studying the pharmacological modification of nAChRs by other compounds. It is hoped that new drugs may be able to prevent the negative effects of beta-amyloid in vivo, and thus serve as treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease.
Studies were undertaken to delineate the combustion products of a magnesium (Mg) ribbon on silica (SiO2) crucibles by analyzing the solid surface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The sample group included a control, two differently-stained crucibles, and the combustion product, magnesium oxide (MgO). Aluminum (Al) was found in both the raw Mg and the MgO powder, with an oxidation state comparable to that of aluminum oxide (Al2O3). Results of the study revealed evidence leading to the formation of aluminum carbide (Al4C3) as part of the surface integrity.
Startups vie for strategic positions in densely populated cities by paying high prices for rent, since the customer base they can establish is larger compared to suburban areas. For this paper, firms locate sequentially basing their decisions on correct expectations as to how their competitors locate and market-players face a non-uniform density function of customers. The solution is obtained using backward induction. Three types of market structures will be considered in this paper: duopoly, oligopoly, and perfect competition. The nature of these equilibriums differs from conventional papers in that firms face a uniform density of customers.
We applied the methods of supersymmetric quantum mechanics to differential equations that generate well-known special functions of modern physics. This application provides new insight into these functions and generates recursion relations among them. Some of these recursion relations are apparently new (or forgotten), as they are not available in commonly used texts and handbooks. This method can be easily extended to explore other special functions of modern physics.