In the middle of the cage, three white mice play together. They run in circles, reach out for one another, and climb over each other as if playing a rowdy game of tag. In the corner of the cage, another mouse sits alone, avoiding the others. When one of its siblings comes over, perhaps checking up on the mouse to see what's wrong, the lone mouse beings to dart wildly around the cage, doing everything it can to avoid contact with its littermates.
They come ten days after the full moon, swarming to shore, nearly invisible and wielding poison-loaded tentacles. A few days later, they disappear just as mysteriously as they had come, leaving behind their microscopic spawn. No, this isn't the plot of another science-fiction movie; it is a real, monthly occurrence on the beaches of Oahu, Hawaii. These creatures are aliens, but they aren't from space. They are an alien species of box jellyfish that has been invading Hawaii's waters for almost two decades. Lifeguards, tourists, and scientists all keep a wary vigilance for this particular box jelly, called Carybdea alata.
In Sanskrit, tuberculosis (TB) is known as Rajyachhyama, or "the king of diseases." It is one of the world's most serious infectious threats. Globally it has been estimated that 1.7 billion people are infected with tuberculosis, a third of them in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. TB infection is very common, and it continues to be the major public health problem in Nepal. About 60% of the economically active population has been infected. Published data about the epidemiology of TB in children is scarce in Nepal, though it is considered one of the most common causes of childhood morbidity in the country. One study has shown that in a developing country such as Nepal, the annual risk of getting TB infection in children is 2-5%, but 8-20% of the deaths are children.
In 1983, Australian doctors J. Robin Warren and Barry Marshall isolated Helicobacter pylori, the bacterial cause of peptic ulcer disease (P.U.D.). However, decades passed before most doctors prescribed antibiotics to their afflicted patients. Why didn't the medical community hit itself on its collective head? After all, most bacterial diseases had been discovered a century before during Robert Koch's golden age of bacteriology. Why didn't doctors laud Warren and Marshall for their findings?
The fear and stigma of tuberculosis is apparent both in the community and among medicos. The incidence of tuberculosis in developed countries had been declining due to improved sanitation and socioeconomic conditions long before the necessary medicines were discovered. After the discovery of anti-tubercular drugs and multi-drug regimen, the Directly Observed Treatment Scheme (DOTS) was launched in 1991 as the most effective measure in combating TB in developing nations. Today, DOTS still has many woes to share. Directly Observed Treatment for eight months often hinders complete treatment and reduces compliance due to inaccessibility of health services or time constraints. Passive case detection strategy in DOTS is only a curative strategy and only prevents the epidemic outbreak of the disease it does not eliminate it.
Over the past decade, researchers have established a definite relationship between Alzheimer's disease and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Not only do cholinergic activity and neuronal nAChR levels decrease as the disease progresses, but recent studies have also demonstrated that the beta-amyloid protein produced in Alzheimer's disease can directly and indirectly affect nAChR-mediated synaptic transmission. Researchers are currently trying to elucidate the mechanisms of these effects while simultaneously studying the pharmacological modification of nAChRs by other compounds. It is hoped that new drugs may be able to prevent the negative effects of beta-amyloid in vivo, and thus serve as treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease.
Studies were undertaken to delineate the combustion products of a magnesium (Mg) ribbon on silica (SiO2) crucibles by analyzing the solid surface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The sample group included a control, two differently-stained crucibles, and the combustion product, magnesium oxide (MgO). Aluminum (Al) was found in both the raw Mg and the MgO powder, with an oxidation state comparable to that of aluminum oxide (Al2O3). Results of the study revealed evidence leading to the formation of aluminum carbide (Al4C3) as part of the surface integrity.
Startups vie for strategic positions in densely populated cities by paying high prices for rent, since the customer base they can establish is larger compared to suburban areas. For this paper, firms locate sequentially basing their decisions on correct expectations as to how their competitors locate and market-players face a non-uniform density function of customers. The solution is obtained using backward induction. Three types of market structures will be considered in this paper: duopoly, oligopoly, and perfect competition. The nature of these equilibriums differs from conventional papers in that firms face a uniform density of customers.
We applied the methods of supersymmetric quantum mechanics to differential equations that generate well-known special functions of modern physics. This application provides new insight into these functions and generates recursion relations among them. Some of these recursion relations are apparently new (or forgotten), as they are not available in commonly used texts and handbooks. This method can be easily extended to explore other special functions of modern physics.