Infections caused by H. pylori are associated with multiple gastrointestinal diseases. To effectively reduce disease-related morbidity is to ensure the absolute eradication of the organism. The stomach plays a vital role in endowing survival strategies to H. pylori by inducing stress-hardening and cross-resistance, which helps them resist the acidic gastric ecosystem and administered antibiotics, respectively. An unstable gastric pH can cause phenotypic alteration, which induces a non-proliferative state in the bacteria, makes them refractory to antibiotics.
The Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology for 2018 was awarded to Dr. James P. Allison and Dr. Tasuku Honjo for making breakthrough discoveries on strategies for treating cancer by preventing the “ignorance” of tumors by the immune system. Developing cancer cells are normally detected by surveying white blood cells, or T-lymphocytes, that recognize the tumor progenitors as abnormal and target the abnormal cells for destruction. However, as a tumor develops, the cancer cells of the tumor begin to send inhibitory signals to immune cells, causing them to “ignore” the growing tumor until it is virtually invisible to the immune system.
Etheostoma is a genus of North American darter fish whose species have similar habitats and breeding seasons, yet hybridization is rare. Behavioral barriers have been demonstrated to play a key role in maintaining species boundaries. Further, conspecific (same species) sperm precedence has also been observed when the gametes of two different species come into contact. In this study, we investigated if physical characteristics of sperm could be a mechanism for the lower fertilization success of heterospecific (different species) males when eggs are simultaneously exposed to conspecific and heterospecific sperm. We chose to examine the sperm of two closely related species, E. zonale and E. barrenense.
Rice has always been a versatile tool. From its use as a primitive form of cement when building the Great Wall of China, to providing nearly 20% of modern global caloric intake and acting as the main food source for 3 billion people worldwide, it has been an irreplaceable staple for humans for centuries. There are thousands of varieties of rice, but they are all in danger from the overwhelming threat of climate change (Ricepedia, 2018).