Cleavage of influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) via host cell proteases is required for entry into the host cell. The serine protease, TMPRSS2, has been implicated as having an important role in HA cleavage and activation. To better understand the role of TMPRSS2 for avian, human and swine influenza virus infection, a lentivirus was constructed containing a doxycycline-inducible small hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA) to inhibit the TMPRSS2 gene via RNA interference (RNAi).
Several studies have shown that there is a correlation between energy band gaps of crystalline binary oxides, and the electronegativity of atoms that make up each particular crystal. Many attempts model energy band gap as a function of Pauling electronegativity – empirically obtained in molecular-gas phase; but we hypothesize that by using a different scape of electronegativity, called optical electronegativity, one can obtain much better predictions for band gaps of new oxides.
Neurotheology encompasses areas of research that investigate the neurological factors involved in religious conviction and sensations (religiosity). Since the 1970s case studies of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy have offered insights into religiosity and have sparked interest in the pursuit of neurological correlates for religiosity. Following the theory that the temporal lobes play important roles in religiosity, attempts were made to induce religious sensations by stimulating these areas of the brain, however the results proved unreliable. More recent research has focused on the usage of neuroimaging equipment to identify areas of the brain that presumably mediate feelings of religiosity.