Dream Recall Frequency (DRF) has been used in many studies throughout psychology. Studies have shown correlations between moods and DRF (Schredl, M. et al. 2009; Tart, C. T. 1962); however, few correlations have been made regarding the increase of DRF by electronic media, such as video games. In this experiment participants were given questionnaires and dream journals to track their abilities to recall nocturnal dreams.
Lipases catalyze the hydrolysis of fats to form glycerol and fatty acids. Secreted lipases have been implicated as virulence factors in some pathogens. Previously a gene encoding a secretory lipase from the human protozoan pathogen Leishmania donovani was identified and characterized however, experimental evidence to support the biological role of secreted lipases in Leishmania sp. remains to be elucidated. The goal of this project was to express the secretory lipase gene, LdLIP3, from L. donovani and characterize its lipolytic activity.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by deposits of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and insoluble hyperphosphorylated Tau protein. Cathepsin D (CTSD) is the main lysosomal protease and it has been suggested as hyperphosphorylated Tau-degradating enzyme. Oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) and its derivatives, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) are greatly generated during altered states, such as AD. Oxidants can react with proteins causing post-translational modifications, such as S-nitrosylation and S-glutathionylation. Therefore, we hypothesize that oxidants generated during several stages of AD, cause post-translational modifications on CTSD, leading to its inactivation.
Soil organic matter (SOM) stability is thought to be dependent almost entirely on temperature, moisture, and microbial dynamics. While soil physical factors are also known determinants of SOM decomposition, proportionally little work has attempted to determine how these factors could regulate future rates of CO2 release from soils under a changing climate. Here, paired lab-field experiments explore the effects of change in the physical environment and carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration of SOM in mineral soil from an 80-year old red spruce forest stand in Nova Scotia, Canada.
Treatment of neurological disease has been impeded by limited drug diffusion across the blood-brain barrier. Convection-enhanced delivery is a drug administration method that can be used to treat diseases of the central nervous system by directly injecting a drug into a patient's brain and allowing the drug to circumvent the blood-brain barrier. However, the transport of a drug in a patient's brain following convection-enhanced delivery is often difficult to predict due to the brain's anisotropic properties, which differ according to direction of measurement.
Leishmania is a group of trypanosomatid protozoan parasites that exist in two morphological forms: a promastigote form within their insect vector and an amastigote form in the mammalian host. To study gene expression in these two distinct lifecycle forms, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) experiments were used to determine the copy number of control gene transcripts in the two lifecycle form populations. The goal of the current study was to clone the β-tubulin gene from Leishmania donovani and evaluate its role as a reference control for RT-qPCR gene expression studies.
Most reef building corals require seawater with low nutrients and sediment loads to thrive. On coral reefs around the world, increases in run-off and its constituent pollutants are damaging and killing reef building corals due to poor coastal zone management practices. In the marine environment, mangroves provide protection for coral reefs by filtering sediments and absorbing nutrients from run-off. On Bonaire, Ritterocereus griseus, a common cactus species, has the potential to act as a natural filter, analogous to mangroves in the marine environment, on hillsides where run-off is problematic.
Language provides insight into individuals' perceptions, needs, and desires; in addition, stress has been shown to influence how others perceive an individual. In the current study, we investigated the impact of stress on language. The ninety-four participants enrolled were asked to complete a speech about the body part of theirs that they liked the least. Speeches were transcribed and entered into linguistic software where a percentage of specific word use of the whole speech sample was analyzed.
The Deepwater Horizon spill was one of the largest oil spills in recorded history, depositing more than 2.6 million gallons of oil a day over the course of 84 days into the Gulf of Mexico, and with it considerable unprecedented problems and concerns. With an eventual total of 172 million gallons leaked into the Gulf, the Deepwater Horizon spill disrupted the ecology and deeply affected wildlife populations along 690 miles of U.S. coastline.Although the volume of oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez tanker represents only a small fraction of that from Deepwater Horizon, Exxon Valdez cleanup efforts took decades and the effects of the spill on wildlife are still being observed today.
Throughout the past 20 years, a prostate cancer screening pathway has been constructed and refined to diagnose prostate cancer. Although one primary pathway for screening prostate cancer has been developed and refined within the past 20 years, there remain many problems with this pathway, including a general lack of sensitivity and specificity; an inability to diagnose the progression of the disease; a significant risk presented to screening patients resulting from confirmatory diagnostic testing; and a lack of evidence supporting the reduction in prostate cancer mortality resulting from screening.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has one of the highest incidence and mortality rates of any infectious disease, with more than 33 million people infected worldwide. Specifically, HIV causes the destruction of helper T cells, ultimately resulting in the suppression of the immune system and leaving its human host susceptible to countless other pathogenic agents. The development of an effective HIV vaccine has continued for more than 20 years. But the use of preventative vaccines using traditional vaccine technologies, which have proven successful for other diseases, has thus far failed with HIV.
Since the discovery that amnesiacs retained certain forms of unconscious learning and memory, implicit memory research has grown immensely over the past several decades. This review discusses two of the most intriguing questions in implicit memory research: how we think it works and why it is important to human behaviour. Using priming as an example, this paper surveys how historic behavioural studies have revealed how implicit memory differs from explicit memory.
Pediatric obesity is considered a major public health problem in the United States today. Because excess body fat is associated with various health risks, clinicians and researchers have been investigating effective ways to reduce the incidence of pediatric obesity. To identify at-risk individuals, the U.S. health care community encourages the use of Body Mass Index (BMI),defined as weight/height2 (kg/m2),to classify children and adolescents into different health risk categories, including overweight and obese. However, the scientific validity of using BMI in pediatric population is questionable, even though BMI may be desirable as a means of tracking the growth patterns of individual children and adolescents in order to identify potential health problems.
This project develops an imaging/navigational tool to assist in detecting flaws in the germanium detectors for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. After imaging the detector surface with a precise imaging and measuring device, software was developed to stitch the resulting images together, applying any necessary rotations, offsets, and averaging to produce a smooth image of the whole detector. These images are tiled appropriately for the Google Maps API to use as a navigation tool, allowing inspectors to smoothly zoom and pan across the detector surface and detect flaws on the surface of the detector.
A high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is under development by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Its design emphasizes electrical power production which may potentially be coupled with process heat for hydrogen production and other industrial applications. NGNP is considering a helical-coil steam generator for the primary heat transport loop heat exchanger based on its increased heat transfer and compactness when compared to other steam generators.
The objective of this research was to test the in vitro anti-angiogenic activity of auraptene, a coumarin from citrus peel oil. We tested the ability of auraptene to inhibit in vitro angiogenesis using vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) growth stimulation.
The metabolic process of glutamate synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is governed by a functional model that assumes extramitochondrial localization of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). In S. cerevisiae, GDH exists as three isozymes: Gdh1p and Gdh3p, which are NADP-dependent, and Gdh2p, which is NAD-dependent. Previous work has suggested nuclear and/or cytosolic localization, but definitive data are lacking. We attempted to determine the subcellular localization of the three GDH isozymes by enzymatic activity.
Organ transplants save the lives of thousands of people every year, and continuing research is making that process increasingly safe. The main problem with organ transplantation is the organ rejection that occurs if the recipient immune system is not compatible with the donor cells. This causes organ failure, and long-term immunosuppression is often required. While this immunosuppression keeps the allograft healthy, it has serious side effects on both the organ and immune systems of the recipient. Further research into immunosuppression can lead to safer transplants methods and post-surgical therapies. The ultimate goal of this research is to create an environment of complete tolerance, allowing the immunosuppression to be stopped with no ill effects.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a life-threatening disease in which the contents of the abdomen encroach upon the heart and lungs of the developing fetus. Despite many advances in managing the condition, it still persists as a major cause of neonatal death in newborns with severe respiratory failure. This review provides a brief context of CDH including its impact, clinical manifestations, and current management & limitations.
Psychological testing has been used in several industries since the 19th century. At this time, over 100,000 tests are being produced annually with no signs of slowing down. The Armed Services Vocation Aptitude Battery, or ASVAB, was produced by and promptly distributed by the Department of Defense (DOD) to promote career exploration. Currently, over one million men and women each year take this test to determine their career choice. Weaknesses of the exam include lack of parental consent, possible self-doubt, and elimination of postsecondary attendance. Further studies are needed to determine the exact negative repercussions. Errors notwithstanding, the ASVAB is a solid examination with proven successful track record. Future endeavors in this exam should only address the two issues previously stated.