ADHD transporter running backwards

A dysfunctional variant in the brain's dopamine transporters might be responsible for the hyperactive symptoms that characterize ADHD (Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder), suggests a study conducted by Vanderbilt University. The findings, published last week in the Journal of Neuroscience, describe patterns of brain activity similar to those found in people who are taking amphetamine, or speed.'

Mapping the Edge of the Solar System in a New Way

Thanks to the unexpected discovery of particles from the edge of the solar system by NASA's STEREO spacecrafts and some innovative new astronomical methods from the University of California, Berkeley, for the first time scientists are able to map the frontier of our solar system. By looking at neutral atoms, instead of light, scientists can explore the mysterious region where hot solar winds meet the cold interstellar medium.

Tenofovir for HIV prevention: gel or tablet

The Microbicide Trials Network (MTN) is aiming to compare the tablet and vaginal gel formulations of tenofovir – a widely used Anti retroviral drug (ARV) - as a HIV preventive drug. While researchers are turning to the preventive aspects of ARV, they have chosen this drug as it can be formulated either as an oral tablet or a vaginal gel to be used daily.

New Heart Stem Cell Source Discovered

A recent study shows that stem cells located on the surface of the heart may help in repairing damaged heart tissue. Researchers at Children's Hospital Boston, whose findings were published online by Nature on June 22, found that stem cells on the surface of the heart, or epicardium, can give rise to heart muscle cells, or cardiomyocytes.

The Two Faces of Mars: Mystery Unmasked?

Recent findings published in Nature might be the answer to the long-asked question of the discrepancy between the Martian hemispheres. Mars, the fourth planet from the sun, has two distinct hemispheres. Its northern half, a lowland region that could have been the site for an enormous ocean, is approximately two miles on average below its southern counterpart in terms of elevation. This almost 50-50 split of the Martian surface has intrigued many scientists as to its formation.

Fair is Foul and Foul is Fair: Europe's return to coal

"Fair is foul, and foul is fair: Hover through the fog and filthy air."

So goes the chanting of witches in Shakespeare's Macbeth refering to the smog produced from coal burning in 16th century England. The burning of coal continued into the Industrial Revolution but began to be replaced in the early 1900s with oil and natural gas. However, because of the new industrial revolution occuring in developing countries and the high prices of oil in developed ones, coal is making a surprising comeback.

Looking at Old Stars in New Ways: Gravitational Waves Help Us See Inside a Neutron Star

You might have heard the stories: neutron stars are so dense that one teaspoon would weigh about a billion tons on Earth. These stars were once not so different from our Sun, generally about 4 to 8 times more massive. But when these stars run out of fuel to burn, they have a supernova explosion, and eject their outer layers – and in this particular case, the ejected outer layers formed what we now call our beautiful Crab Nebula (see photo). The inner part of the star, with no more fuel, collapses under its own weight to a sphere about 20 kilometers in diameter. The pressure is so great that protons and electrons come together to become neutrons, and a neutron star' is born. And now, for the first time, an international team of scientists has found a way to look inside these mysterious objects, using an instrument intended to pick up gravitational waves.

Use of Resident Macroinvertebrates to Monitor the Improvement of a Restored First Order Stream

Although often ignored due to their small size and seeming lack of economic importance, headwater streams have a high ecological importance to watersheds. Although restoration efforts on both streams and rivers have increased in recent years, monitoring on smaller successful and unsuccessful restoration strategies. The purpose of this study is to use macroinvertebrate bioassessment protocols to monitor and gauge the success of a restoration on a flood impaired headwater stream, Smith's Run, within a highly urban watershed.

Application of an Olfactory Data-Preprocessing Algorithm to Chemotactic Robotic Navigation

Electronic Olfactory System (EOS) sensor technology is widely used in both research and industry to provide olfactory data for analysis. A variety of physical sensor types exist, each gathering olfactory data in a unique way, and each with individual performance gains and losses. This data has allowed the development of robotic platforms that utilize a variety of algorithms to locate and navigate to the sources of odor plumes in experimental environments. Most of these systems utilize chemotaxis, which allows effective navigation only in ideal, non-turbid environments due to both plume dynamics and limitations in response and recovery times of available artificial olfactory sensors.