Mesenchymal progenitor cells are widely studied for their ability to regulate macrophage cell responses and can be suppressive or supportive during an inflammatory response. Mouse aorta-derived progenitors (mAo) support the macrophage inflammatory response and highly express CD105, also known as endoglin. Elevated CD105 expression is consistently associated with inflammatory disease. Therefore, we hypothesized that suppression of CD105 will reduce the immunosupportive capacity of mAo mesenchymal progenitors. We used siRNA to reduce expression of CD105 in mAo cells. We subsequently examined the effect of this deficiency in their response to both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and their ability to support the macrophage inflammatory response.
Mitochondrial proteins are vital regulators of cellular metabolism, with their roles ranging from energy generation to cell apoptosis. Furthering our understanding of the structures and spatio-temporal dynamics of mitochondrial proteins is therefore central to the elucidation of various metabolic mechanisms. Mitochondrial metabolic disorder is one of the most commonly inherited human diseases. Despite its prevalence, it is difficult to be diagnosed at early stages because of the disparate disease genotypes and phenotypes. Thus, advancing means of cataloguing the extensive mitochondrial proteome is crucial for clarifying the pathogenesis of mitochondrial diseases. Such information would provide considerable insight into the improvement of current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for the disorders. The requirement of purification and the low resolution of conventional imaging techniques impede the study of mitochondrial proteins in situ. Recent developments of imaging techniques, such as single molecule holography, photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM), and stimulated emission depletion (STED), allow for the visualization of proteins down to single molecule resolution in situ. This enables direct study of protein activity mechanisms with considerations of the contributions given by their native environments. In this review, we summarize the limitations of conventional structural techniques, such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), specific to studying mitochondrial proteins.
Past studies have examined the impact of M-rated, very violent video games and E-rated non-violent video games on attention and concentration ability. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of brief exposure to an E10-rated, mildly-violent video game had on short-term attention and concentration ability in 15- to 17-year-old males with moderate-use video gameplay histories. Subjects were randomly assigned into playing either an E10-rated, mildly-violent video game or a trivia card game for 45 minutes. The subjects in the experimental group performed significantly worse on the neuropsychological measure of attention and concentration (Digit Span Forward [DSF]) compared to those in the control group, who showed consistent performance before and after the exposure. The findings in this study are unique, as this is the first time that the impact of an E10-rated, mildly-violent video game on a player’s short-term attention and concentration ability has been examined.