Music has been used for thousands of years as a means of emotional expression. The goals of this paper are to (a) review current literature on how music induces emotion (b) explore the mechanisms of how this happens both physiologically and psychologically and (c) to look at the role of desired effect and musical preference to move towards a general conclusion of what drives listeners' musical choices.
Anthropogenic activities may influence rates of microbial activity through the increased concentrations of pollutants. One relatively understudied pollutant is lithium. In addition to natural sources of lithium, lithium is also derived from a variety of manufactured goods such as pharmaceuticals and electronic devices. Thus, environmental concentrations of lithium are increasing. We studied the effect of lithium on microbial activity measured as respiration, nutrient uptake, and nitrification rates.