The new IS/LM establishes that monetary policies should not influence real economies in the long run since they cannot engineer a permanent departure of outout from its capacity level (King 2000). The purpose of this paper is to empirically evaluate limitations of monetary policies emphasized by the new IS/LM model. A long-run relationship between real interest rates and the real economy implies a possibility that monetary policies have permanent effects on the economy. Therefore, we tested four hypotheses in which interest rates and real economic variables might be related.
The functional properties of proteins depend on their three-dimensional shapes. Protein structures can be determined by X-ray crystallography as a tool. The three-dimensional structure of the apo form of the Escherichia coli L-arabinose isomerase (ECAI) has recently been determined. ECAI is responsible for the initial stage of L-arabinose catabolism, converting arabinose into ribulose in vivo. This enzyme also plays a crucial role in catalyzing the conversion of galactose into tagatose (low calorie natural sugar) in vitro.