In the past few years, it seems like the sky has finally become one big Kodak moment. Astronomical images have been spotted everywhere, from dorm wall décor to Pearl Jam CDs, and NASA's website regularly fields several million hits a day whenever new pictures are released from the latest mission. It's even a safe bet that the biggest hubbub over space policy occurred when plans were announced to not repair the Hubble Space Telescope- cut whatever you will from the budget, NASA, but don't you dare take our pretty pictures!
According to Thomson Scientific, the company which determines the impact factor of scientific journals, the USA produced 2.9 million research papers during the period 1996-2006. Taiwan, the 13th country on this list produced 1.2 million scientific papers and you can imagine a large number contribution by other countries in between these two. These statistics mean that it is impossible for us to read all the research papers published in the field of our interest or expertise. Well conducted review articles helps readers to overcome this problem and keep updated and abreast with the current progress and the future direction of research in the area of their interest.
The launching of Sputnik on October 4, 1957 simultaneously spurred the Cold War into a Space Race and the twentieth century into a Space Age. In fact, the now termed "Sputnik Night" of October 4-5, 1957 became the edge of a coin, separating history into two eras: "pre-Sputnik" on one half of the coin and "post-Sputnik" on the other. The latter soon came to be known as the "Space Age." While most people know that Sputnik was the first satellite to successfully orbit the earth, thereby escalating the tensions between the United Stated and the Soviet Union, the goal of this article is to examine the preceding and following events that are often overlooked.
I stood under the operating lights, holding a retractor and sweating into my mask and scrubs. The orthopedic surgeon sat on a stool next to me, busily cutting and trimming tissue within the incision on the patient's left knee. "Now there is another ligament we have to find.sometimes it's not so easy to locate under the fat.ah, here it is!" He gestured for me to take a look, and I bent over to examine the cut. Under a mat of bloody, spongy tissue, there it was: a whitish thread-like muscle, barely visible amongst the musculature and gore.
Hemophilias are genetic bleeding disorders for which there are still no cures. Treatment of hemophilias are difficult because patients need repeated infusion of missing coagulation factors, some patients develop inhibitors to the infused factors, and gene therapy is still not suitable for mass treatment. The choice between the two most common therapies, plasma-derived products or recombinant factor VIII or factor IX, is still a dilemma for clinicians involved in the care of patients with hemophilia.
The discovery and recognition of Archaea as the third domain of life on earth have led to exciting developments and characterization of a wide array of previously unknown microorganisms and associated components in the last few decades. Differences in composition and properties of major components such as cytoplasmic membranes, enzymes, and proteins of these extreme Archaea were found to play major roles in maintaining archaeal stability in seemingly inhospitable environments. Unique archaeal adaptations to drastically varying biosystems have aroused special interests in their respective potential in biotechnological applications.
Developing countries do not always have the resources in place to provide potable water for its population. This study investigates the current problem in Calcutta, India, and presents possible solutions. Half of the 202 people surveyed in this study were slum dwellers while the other half were apartment dwellers. A weighted average of the willingness to pay for potable water has been complied, analyzed, and compared to the cost of providing potable water. The willingness to pay exceeds the production and maintenance cost for the potable water supply scheme suggesting that a water tariff is economically justifiable. If a tariff is imposed, the operation and maintenance cost of the system could be covered by the service provided. The city would then qualify for further financing from the international banks to expand the surface water treatment plant and supply network system. This aid, in turn, would reduce dependence on ground water, which is environmentally unsustainable, because of natural arsenic contamination.